Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology
Liver - Original Article

Correlation Between Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Complications of Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea

2.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

3.

Laboratory of Intestinal Mucosa and Skin Immunology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

4.

Department of Dermatology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Turk J Gastroenterol 2022; 33: 44-52
DOI: 10.5152/tjg.2022.20689
Read: 390 Downloads: 152 Published: 01 January 2022

Background: Many studies and meta-analyses have investigated the associations among proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE), and other infections. However, these studies had limitations, including the omission of several relevant studies and drawing conclusions, based on the abstracts without consulting the full-text of the articles. To evaluate the association between PPIs and complications arising from cirrhosis and risks of PPI use in patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: Data were extracted from the EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of the selected studies.

Results: A total of 29 studies (13 case–control and 16 cohort studies) involving 20,484 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The total relative risk (RR) for the 23 studies which investigated SBP was 1.31, and the 95% CI was 1.10-1.55 (I2 = 73.0%). The total RR for the 7 studies which examined PSE was 1.25 (95% CI 0.85-1.84, I2 = 96.1%). For the 7 studies which analyzed overall infection, the total RR was 1.37 (95% CI 1.07-1.76, I2 = 79.3%). The RR for the 2 cohort studies that assessed mortality was 1.39 (95% CI 0.85-2.27, I2 = 0.0%).

Conclusion: PPI use in cirrhosis patients increased the SBP and overall infection risk. PPIs should be considered with appropriate indications when the benefits exceed the risks in cirrhosis patients with ascites.

Cite this article as: Hwang SJ, Lee DH, Koh SJ, et al. Correlation between proton pump inhibitors and the complications of liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2022; 33(1): 44-52.

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